Attacks Threads and Vulnerabilities notes (2)

Identifying Network Attacks

Rogue Access Points

Unauthorized access point

  • Used to steal or intercept data
  • Can be combined with jamming/interference techniques

Installed in a corporate network by unauthorized personnel

Installed by hackers for Man in The Middle (MiTM) attacks

Evil Twin

Rogue access point that is impersonating a legitimate access point - using the same SSID

Bluejacking and Bluesnarfing

Sending of unauthorized messages or data to a victim’s device via Buletooth technology

Typically sending a vCard which contains a message in the name field to another Bluetooth-enabled device via the OBEX(OBjectEXchange) protocol.

Bluesnarfing is the opposite of bluejacking, in that data is pulled off the victim device

  • Contact lists
  • Pictures
  • Messages

All softs of sensitive information can be stolen

  • Pictures
  • Text Messages
  • Emails
  • Personally Identifiable Information (PII)


An attacker can create a DoS scenario on a wireless network by sending a spoofed disassociation frame

  • Source MAC address is set to that of the access point (AP)


  • Sending out excessive RF noise basically making Wi-Fi channels unusable
  • Typically requires specialized equipment
  • Illegal in most places

Raido Frequency Identification (RFID)

Two types of RFID systems:

  • Active Reader/Passive Tag (ARPT)
  • Active Reader/Active Tag (ARAT)

Most commerical RFID for inventory control has an effective distance of ~3 ft.

Near Field Communication (NFC)

Technology to allow communication between devices within close proximity to each other (usually 3-4”)

  • Builds upon RFID (one-way) whereas NFC is two-way communication
  • Can be used by a malicious attacker to steal data from a nearby device

IV Attack

Initialization Vector Attack

  • Weaker encryption had short IVs that would repeat fairly quickly.
  • Attacker could flood the network, sniff the packets and see the IVs being sent
    • As they eventually repeat, the attacker could derive the IV and then gain access

WEP uses a 24-bit IV

  • Easily cracked
  • Since been deprecated

WEP Weekness

  • Initialization Vector (IV) is only 24 bits long
  • Sent in clear text
  • IV is static and is reused
  • IV is part of the RC4 encryption key

WEP should be avoided unless backward compatibility with older devices is needed.


Man in the Browser

  • Malware (trojan) is installed on victim’s machine
  • Executes when browser is launched
  • Scans for known sites of attack
  • When things like banking sites are visited, the malware launches in the background
  • Executes commands/transactions, captures data, etc.

ARP Poisoning

Also known as ARP Cache Poisoning

  • Attacker sends out spoofed ARP messages onto a LAN to associate their machine with another host IP (i.e. default gateway)
  • Allows the attacker to intercept data intended for another recipient
  • Can be used for DoS, MiTM or session hijacking

IP/MAC Spoofing

Masquerading as another using their IP or MAC address

  • IP Address spoofing
  • Addres Resolution Protocol (ARP) spoofing
    • ARP resolves an IP address to a MAC address

Can be used with MiTM middle attacks

MAC Flooding

Allows attacker see all traffics in the network.

MAC Cloning

Also known as MAC spoofing

  • Change the MAC address of a network interface card
    • Burned in at the factory
    • 48-bit HEX address with first three octets identifying the manufacturer
    • 7C:67:A2:45:EB:2D (Intel NIC)

MAC randomization is a feature to avoid tracking

  • iOS, Android, Windows and Linux

DNS Poisoning

Also known as “DNS Cache Poisoning”

  • Manipulating the data in a DNS server’s cache to point to different IP addresses
  • Attacker could redirect a site’s traffic from the legitimate site to one they own.

Typo Squatting/URL Hijacking

Setting up domain names to capitalize on the fact that users make typos

  • instead of
  • Goggle, Googel, Googgle, etc

Fraudulent websites are set up to resemble the real ones

  • Capture user credentials

Ad portals full of ads that might appeal to a user going to that website

  • Hoping to create ad revenue by supplying complementary advertising

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)

Large scale attack against a target

  • Botnets
  • Bot herders
  • Command and Control (C&C) Center

C&C issues command(s) to botnet zombies to initiate attack against a target

  • Could be hundreds, thousands or millions of zombies comprising a botnet army

DoS (Denial of Service)

  • Similar type of attack but on much smaller scale.

Smurf Attach (Amplification)

DDoS type of attack

  • Victim’s IP address is spoofed and ICMP messages are broadcast to a computer network
  • Recipients will respond with reply to victim’s IP address, flooding it with responses
  • Goal being it will slow the target/victim PC to point of being unusable


  • Can be mitigated by network administrators setting policy to disallow computers from responding to ICMP requests or broadcasts
  • Configure routers to not forward broadcasts (default on most routers)

Attack vectors

  • Network
    • DNS amplification (SMURF attack)
  • Application
    • HTTP GET / POST attacks

Operational Technology (OT)

  • Web Application Firewalls (WAF)
  • IP reputation databases
  • Challenge to requestor (i.e. CAPTCHA)

Malicious Code Execution

  • Powershell
  • Python
  • Bash
  • Macros
  • Visual Basic for Applications

Malware sent via email or malicious links

Malicious code can be installed and run to execute MiTM, MiTB and other data manipulation / exfiltration attacks

Infected USB sticks and other removable media

Scripts can be executed automatically upon access to install malicious code (malware, ransomware, backdoors)

Remote Access Trojans (RAT) / Backdoors

RAT programs can allow complete control over a target system including access to browser sessions, data, webcams, etc

Written on September 22, 2022